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Future time orientation, social class and anomia

Fredrick Koenig (Tulane University), William Swanson (Tulane University), Carl Harter (Tulane University)
Cite this article:  Koenig, F., Swanson, W., & Harter, C. (1981). Future time orientation, social class and anomia. Social Behavior and Personality: An international journal, 9, 123-128.
Publication date: August 1981


One hundred seventy-two (172) subjects in a southern metropolitan area were given the Circles Test to determine future dominance and the "Srole Anomia Scale." They were then assigned a social class ranking based on their education and occupation. It was found that social class was related inversely to anomia and directly to future time orientation. These results suggest that the avoidance of thinking about the future among the lower class is a defense reaction, both to the predominancy of anomia in their group and to the lack of power in their class.

Full Text: PDF  pp. 123-128