Future time orientation, social class and anomia

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Fredrick Koenig
William Swanson
Carl Harter
Cite this article:  Koenig, F., Swanson, W., & Harter, C. (1981). Future time orientation, social class and anomia. Social Behavior and Personality: An international journal, 9(2), 123-128.


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One hundred seventy-two (172) subjects in a southern metropolitan area were given the Circles Test to determine future dominance and the "Srole Anomia Scale." They were then assigned a social class ranking based on their education and occupation. It was found that social class was related inversely to anomia and directly to future time orientation. These results suggest that the avoidance of thinking about the future among the lower class is a defense reaction, both to the predominancy of anomia in their group and to the lack of power in their class.
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