Effects of success and failure on children's perceptions of internal-external locus of control

John D. Cunningham1, Harold Gerard2, Norman Miller3
1Macquaire University, Australia
2University of California, United States
3University of Southern California, United States
Cite this article:  Cunningham, J. D., Gerard, H., & Miller, N. (1978). Effects of success and failure on children's perceptions of internal-external locus of control. Social Behavior and Personality: An international journal, 6(1), 1-10.

Volume 6 Issue 1 | e220 | Published: February 1978 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.1978.6.1.1

Abstract
Full Text
References
Tables and Figures
Acknowledgments
Author Contact
Little attention has been devoted to the effects of childhood achievement experiences as they might determine generalized internal-external control orientations (I-E). It was hypothesized that chronic success or failure on intellectual tasks will lead to expectancies of internal or external control, respectively. Nine- and ten-year-old school children were presented with a competitive dot-counting, task in which success and failure were manipulated. Pre- and post-measures were taken on an itemized I-E instrument derived from three previously used scales. Post-measures were generally unaffected by the success-failure manipulation. However, children who actually performed poorly on the task displayed a more external control orientation than did those who had performed well. Further analysis of the I-E items revealed that those who had actually performed poorly were most likely to attribute their achievement experiences in general to luck. These findings were interpreted as providing a bridge between study of a personality trait (I-E) and the attributional analysis of achievement events.
Please login and/or purchase the PDF to view the full article.
Please login and/or purchase the PDF to view the full article.
Please login and/or purchase the PDF to view the full article.
Please login and/or purchase the PDF to view the full article.
Please login and/or purchase the PDF to view the full article.