Culture and gender differences in the self-esteem of college students: A four-country comparison

David Watkins1, Adebowale Akande2, Christopher Cheng3, Murari Regmi4
1University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
2University of the Western Cape, South Africa
3City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
4Tribhuvan University, Nepal
Cite this article:  Watkins, D., Akande, A., Cheng, C., & Regmi, M. (1996). Culture and gender differences in the self-esteem of college students: A four-country comparison. Social Behavior and Personality: An international journal, 24(4), 321-328.

Volume 24 Issue 4 | e861 | Published: November 1996 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.1996.24.4.321

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The responses of 268 Hong Kong and 399 Nigerian first or second year social science undergraduate university students to the Personal and Academic Self-Concept Inventory were compared to previously reported findings with similar groups of American and Nepalese students. Country x Gender analyses indicated clear, statistically significant main and interaction effects which varied according to the area of self-esteem under investigation. Support was found for the tendency found in research with secondary school students for subjects from non-Western cultures to report higher academic but lower non-academic self-esteem than their Western peers. However, the gender differences did not generalize across cultures.
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