Reluctance to transmit bad news when the recipient is unknown: Experiments in five nations

Edgar C. O'Neal1, Douglas Levine1, James Frank2
1Tulane University, United States
2University of Michigan, United States
Cite this article:  O'Neal, E. C., Levine, D., & Frank, J. (1979). Reluctance to transmit bad news when the recipient is unknown: Experiments in five nations. Social Behavior and Personality: An international journal, 7(1), 39-48.

Volume 7 Issue 1 | e246 | Published: February 1979 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.1979.7.1.39

Abstract
Full Text
References
Tables and Figures
Acknowledgements
Author Contact
Postcards containing a message either high or low in importance, and either favorable or unfavorable for the recipient, were individually "lost" in the public transportation systems of Paris, Madrid, London, Geneva, and Frankfurt am Main. More postcards were returned when the message was favorable than when it was unfavorable, but only in the high importance conditions. This pattern of results occurred in each location except Madrid. The findings are discussed in terms of Rosen and Tesser's (1970) reluctance to bear bad news (MUM) effect.
Please login and/or purchase the PDF to view the full article.
Please login and/or purchase the PDF to view the full article.
Please login and/or purchase the PDF to view the full article.
Please login and/or purchase the PDF to view the full article.
Please login and/or purchase the PDF to view the full article.