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Measuring social stereotypes with the Photo Projective Method

Takuya Okamoto (Kwansei Gakuin University), Takehiro Fujihara (Kwansei Gakuin University), Junzo Kato (Osaka International University), Koji Kosugi (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Fellowship, Nishinomiya), Naoki Nakazato (Kwansei Gakuin University), Yoshifumi Hayashi (Kwansei Gakuin University), Hiromi Ikeuchi (Kansai University), Noriko Nakagawa (Ryutsu Kagaku University), Kumiko Mori (Kwansei Gakuin University), Hiroshi Nonami (Kwansei Gakuin University)
Cite this article:  Okamoto, T., Fujihara, T., Kato, J., Kosugi, K., Nakazato, N., Hayashi, Y., Ikeuchi, H., Nakagawa, N., Mori, K., & Nonami, H. (2006). Measuring social stereotypes with the Photo Projective Method. Social Behavior and Personality: An international journal, 34, 319-332.
Publication date: April 2006


This study aimed to measure social stereotypes with the Photo Projective Method (PPM) developed by Noda (1988). PPM is a new technique based on a projective method to capture perceived environments by photographs. Ten university students were provided with cameras and requested to take three pictures of "something representative of our university" and three pictures of "something not representative of our university." The results showed that stereotypes were measured on a microlevel and macrolevel by PPM. Also PPM allowed participants greater freedom in response production, therefore eliciting far more elaborate responses than language-based methodologies. The possibilities and advantages of PPM for measuring social identity, social representation, and other areas of social cognition are discussed.

Full Text: PDF  pp. 319-332