The effect of Internet addiction on mind wandering: Resilience and academic burnout as mediators among Chinese adolescents

Main Article Content

Fang Wang
Meiling Huang
Jianguo Qu
Cite this article:  Wang, F., Huang, M., & Qu, J. (2023). The effect of Internet addiction on mind wandering: Resilience and academic burnout as mediators among Chinese adolescents. Social Behavior and Personality: An international journal, 51(2), e12097.


Abstract
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Attention, particularly mind wandering, has garnered research interest because of the development of technologies that empower a person to focus on several tasks simultaneously. This study investigated the mediating roles of resilience and academic burnout in the relationship between the Internet addiction and mind wandering of Chinese adolescents. Participants were 2,335 adolescents who anonymously completed questionnaires on Internet addiction, resiliency, academic burnout, and mind wandering. We used descriptive statistics and structural equation modeling for data analysis. The results showed that Internet addiction was positively and directly associated with mind wandering, and that there was also an indirect effect via resilience, academic burnout, and a sequential mediating effect of resilience and academic burnout. These results highlight the importance of resiliency as a construct in explaining mind wandering and have implications as regards the necessary steps to prevent mind wandering in adolescents.

When COVID-19 became a public health emergency in China, schools postponed the start of their new terms to stop the virus from spreading further throughout the country. Students have therefore experienced an unprecedented phase of online learning that has considerably boosted Internet use and raised the possibility that Internet-related problems, such as Internet addiction, might emerge or be reinforced in adolescents (Sun et al., 2020). Frequent Internet usage may be a sign of poor attentional control in addicted individuals (Marin et al., 2021). The Internet offers a channel that is constantly open for pursuing the types of stimulus-independent objectives that arise during mind wandering. Research suggests that Internet addiction will result in increased mind wandering since the Internet encourages frequent distraction and mind wandering (Marin et al., 2021; Utami et al., 2021). The Internet is a powerful attention-grabbing tool, giving the mind a clear place to go when it is preoccupied with something else. It is also conceivable that people who are addicted to the Internet create a powerful and positive mental image of the Internet that attracts their attention (Thornton et al., 2014). Therefore, we set out to explore the relationship between Internet addiction and mind wandering, as well as its internal intermediary mechanism.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, there were 1.032 billion Internet users in China, with 13.3% being aged between 10 and 19 years (China Internet Network Information Center, 2022). Because adolescents are a significant proportion of Internet users in the nation, reliance on and excessive use of the Internet might interfere with their academic lives (Peterka-Bonetta et al., 2019). The academic performance of adolescents is significantly and negatively impacted by Internet addiction (Azizi et al., 2019), and academic burnout negatively impacts students’ academic lives (Ríos-Risquez et al., 2018). Academic burnout is characterized by a student’s experience of exhaustion brought on by the demands and challenges of their studies, a loss of enthusiasm for their schoolwork, and a sense of inefficiency (Zhang et al., 2007). Additionally, academic burnout impairs adolescents’ attention, executive control, task completion time, information processing of task inputs, and capacity to keep their attention on the task, all of which can lead to mind wandering (McVay & Kane, 2009). This suggests that academic burnout is closely related to Internet addiction and mind wandering.

The development of resilience is an important stage in adolescence. It involves a significant change in the neurobiological and psychosocial aspects of an individual’s environment, which can affect their ability to respond to social situations. Children who adopted healthy coping mechanisms during the COVID-19 pandemic experienced decreased emotional and behavioral distress (Orgilés et al., 2020). Studies have shown that resilience can affect the relationship between negative symptoms and addictive behaviors (Nam et al., 2018), and resilient people are more likely to control their wandering minds (Pang et al., 2019). It is hypothesized that resilience may act as a mediator between Internet addiction and wandering minds. Students with strong levels of resilience are less likely to suffer from academic burnout (Janatolmakan et al., 2021). Online learning requires people to be connected to the Internet at all times, and significantly increased Internet usage increases the possibility of Internet addiction among teens. We hypothesized that students with high (vs. low) resilience would be better able to handle situations like Internet addiction and that high levels of resilience, as a protective factor, would assist them in adjusting to online learning and coping with academic problems, thus reducing their academic burnout. We expected that lower levels of academic burnout would help students stay focused, thus reducing their chances of developing mind wandering. Few researchers have paid attention to the comprehensive mechanism of these variables. Therefore, we examined the relationship between Internet addiction and mind wandering, and analyzed resilience and academic burnout as mediators of this relationship.

According to control failure theory, mind wandering (MW) is the occurrence of thoughts that are not connected to the present circumstances and entails a breakdown of the executive control process as a result of task-irrelevant thoughts (Gong & Ding, 2018). External disturbances cause mind wandering and prevent the person from maintaining focus on their work (Mendoza et al., 2018). Individual and task characteristics may be predictors of the occurrence of mind wandering. For instance, those with a low (vs. high) working memory capacity and those performing high-demand (vs. low-demand) tasks experience mind wandering more frequently and to a greater extent (Utami et al., 2021). In addition, more complicated tasks tend to include more mind wandering than lengthier tasks do (Randall et al., 2014). Mind wandering is more detrimental in task-demanding conditions, especially when it results in low self-esteem, unpleasant emotions, and high levels of stress (Mooneyham & Schooler, 2013; Poerio et al., 2013). Task-unrelated or off-task behavior often goes unnoticed, yet is directly linked to poorer academic and online learning outcomes (Hollis & Was, 2016; Szpunar et al., 2013). Frequent mind wandering and low motivation have a negative influence on involvement with task performance (Brosowsky et al., 2020; Seli et al., 2019). In short, mind wandering has a significant impact on ability to concentrate on lengthy task demands and maintain task-focused attention (Galéra et al., 2012; Walker & Trick, 2018; Yanko & Spalek, 2014).

Internet Addiction and Mind Wandering

Many activities have moved online as a result of pandemic conditions and societal constraints, and there is an increasing need for Internet access for anything from working from home to online classes. According to Zhu et al. (2022) individuals began to use the Internet more extensively after the COVID-19 pandemic started than they did beforehand. Particularly, the pandemic may have resulted in increasing adolescents’ access to the Internet and heightening the occurrence of Internet addiction, which is defined by excessive and problematic Internet usage (Kato et al., 2020). Kononova and Chiang (2015) found Internet activity was the most significant determining factor for media multitasking, with participants reporting that media multitasking was more prominent when being encouraged to continue to engage with others. Internet addiction, excessive use of modern communication technology, frequent browser switching, feeling distracted, and technology-related perplexity are substantially correlated with higher mind wandering (Bockarova, 2016; Johannes et al., 2018). In addition, Internet addiction may be a predictor of inattention, difficulty shifting focus, and distractibility (Marin et al., 2021; Sansevere & Ward, 2021). Therefore, we formed the following hypothesis:
Hypothesis 1: Internet addiction will be positively associated with mind wandering.

The Mediating Role of Resilience

A broad definition of resilience is the ability to respond positively to challenging circumstances (Lussier et al., 2007). Resilience is affected by numerous personal variables, including culture, age, and race, as well as the context of the stressor (Connor & Davidson, 2003). When faced with a difficult scenario, people have four options to handle the stress: (a) give up, (b) recover but not to baseline, (c) recover to baseline, (d) recover and thrive above baseline (Steinhardt & Dolbier, 2008). Research has explored the connection between resilience and other addictions found that high-risk adolescents with higher resilience are less likely to develop gambling addiction (Lussier et al., 2007). Additionally, it has been discovered that college students’ resilience and alcohol consumption are adversely connected (Dinsmore et al., 2011). According to the theory of positive psychology, which focuses on the protective factors that can reduce adverse symptoms rather than the risk factors of adverse symptoms (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2014), positive psychological interventions such as resilience are effective in reducing negative symptoms (Sin & Lyubomirsky, 2009). Recent research has indicated that college students who lack resilience are prone to mind wandering (Pang et al., 2019; Song et al., 2014), whereas teenagers are less likely to experience mind wandering when they are more resilient (Yang, 2020). Therefore, we formed the following hypothesis:
Hypothesis 2: Resilience will mediate the relationship between Internet addiction and mind wandering.

The Mediating Role of Academic Burnout

Academic burnout and Internet addiction have frequently been associated (Jackson et al., 2016). Academic burnout is a condition marked by emotional tiredness, a propensity to depersonalize, and a sense of poor personal success brought on by the pressure to study, the weight of one’s academic load, or other learning-related issues (M. Wang et al., 2019). The move to online learning, necessitated by the COVID-19 pandemic, has been tough for adolescents, as they are used to face-to-face teaching using traditional classroom methods. Students may also become exhausted or sad (Zhu et al., 2022), and these difficulties can exacerbate their academic burnout (J. Wang et al., 2021). There have been few studies on the connection between Internet addiction and academic burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic (Basri et al., 2022; Jiang, 2021). According to Vinski and Watter (2013), burnout has a positive influence on mind wandering. Burnout reduces attention, executive control, task completion time, information processing of task inputs, and ability to retain attention on task, all of which can result in mind wandering (McVay & Kane, 2009). The more burnout an adolescent experiences, the more likely it is that they will experience mind wandering. Therefore, we formed the following hypothesis:
Hypothesis 3: Academic burnout will mediate the relationship between Internet addiction and mind wandering.

The Relationship Between Resilience and Academic Burnout

Academic failure, poor performance, and a decreased sense of fulfillment are all possible consequences of academic burnout. Given these repercussions, finding a solution to this conundrum is essential (Eaves & Payne, 2019). Resilience, which is the capacity to rise above challenges and adversity and fortify oneself in the face of negative encounters (McDonald et al., 2013; Thomas & Revell, 2016), is one method for preventing academic burnout (Ramirez-Granizo et al., 2020; Taheri Kharameh et al., 2017). Resilience may shield individuals from pressures and promote success in both work and life (McDonald et al., 2013; M. Wang et al., 2019). Numerous studies have investigated the connection between resilience and academic burnout (Kristanto et al., 2016; Kutluturkan et al., 2016). Recent research has found the relationship between academic burnout and resilience in nursing and midwifery students shows a negative and significant trend (Fernández-Castillo & Fernández-Prados, 2021; Lee, 2019). Individuals with high resilience are less likely to experience academic burnout, decreasing their risk of subsequently developing of mind wandering (Oyoo et al., 2018; Shin & Hwang, 2020). Therefore, we formed the following hypothesis:
Hypothesis 4: Resilience and academic burnout will have a sequential mediation effect in the relationship between Internet addiction and mind wandering.
 
The hypothetical model in this study is shown in Figure 1.
 

Table/Figure

Figure 1. Research Chain Mediation Model

Method

Participants and Procedure

Participants were adolescents living in Guangdong Province, southern China. We surveyed 2,673 students, of whom 2,335 (87.36%) provided valid responses. The sample consisted of 1,092 (46.77%) boys and 1,243 (53.23%) girls who ranged in age from 12 to 19 years (M = 14.9, SD = 1.73). Among them, 578 (24.75%) were in grade seven, 357 (15.29%) in grade eight, 291 (12.46%) in grade nine, 469 (20.09%) in grade ten, 354 (15.16%) in grade eleven, and 286 (12.25%) in grade twelve.

Trained psychology teachers and graduate students gathered data from the participants during school hours. Prior to data collection, we acquired the participants’ and their parents’ written informed consent. A thorough explanation of the study was given to the students and they were told to complete the questionnaire independently. Responses were kept anonymous to promote truthful reporting and it took around 15 minutes to finish the survey. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Huaihua University.

Measures

Internet Addiction Test

Internet addiction was assessed using the Chinese version (Lu et al., 2019) of the Internet Addiction Test (Young, 1996). The test comprises 20 items (e.g., “How often do you find that you stay online longer than you intended?”). Participants respond to items on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (not at all) to 5 (always). Total scores on this questionnaire range from 20 to 100. A total score under 20 reflects normal Internet usage, scores ranging from 20 to 49 reflect minimal use, scores from 50 to 79 reflect moderate use, and scores from 80 to 100 reflect excessive use. Cronbach’s alpha was .83 in this study, indicating the test was reliable.
 

Resilience

The 27-item Resilience Scale measures resilient behavior as seen by the respondent (Hu & Gan, 2008). There are 12 items indicative of low resilience (e.g., “Failure often bothers me”) and 15 items indicative of high resilience (e.g., “I’m typically more mature and experienced following setbacks”). Participants rate each item on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Cronbach’s alpha in this study was .96, indicating the test was reliable.
 

Academic Burnout

To measure academic burnout we employed the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS) adapted by Lian et al. (2005). The MBI-SS comprises 15 items that assess learning burnout/exhaustion among students on three dimensions: exhaustion (e.g., “I have often felt exhausted about my studies”), cynicism (e.g., “I have become less enthusiastic about my studies”), and professional efficacy (e.g., “I can reach my goals regularly”). Items on the MBI-SS are scored using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (nearly never) to 5 (almost always), with items on the professional efficacy factor being reverse coded. Academic burnout is indicated by high scores on exhaustion and cynicism and low scores on professional efficacy. The internal consistency of the subscales was high (Cronbach’s α = .76–.85), indicating the test was reliable.
 

Mind Wandering

Mind wandering was assessed with the Mind Wandering Questionnaire developed by Mrazek et al. (2013). It comprises 20 items (e.g., “During a lecture or speech, my mind often wanders”) rated on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (nearly never) to 5 (almost always). Responses are summed to form a total score ranging from 20 to 100, with higher scores reflecting a higher frequency of mind wandering. Carciofo et al. (2014) translated the Chinese version of the questionnaire utilized in this investigation and it showed high reliability (α = .85). Cronbach’s alpha was .84 in this study, indicating the test was reliable.

Data Analysis

We used SPSS 22.0 to calculate the descriptive statistics and correlations. Additionally, PROCESS Model 6 (Hayes, 2017) was used to test the mediating effects of resilience and academic burnout. The bootstrapping method was used to produce 95% bias-corrected confidence intervals (CIs) for the magnitude of these effects based on 5,000 resampled data points.

Results

Descriptive Statistics and Correlation Analysis

The correlation coefficients between the variables and the results of descriptive statistical analyses are shown in Table 1. Internet addiction was significantly and negatively correlated with resilience, and was significantly and positively correlated with academic burnout and mind wandering, respectively, whereas resilience was significantly and negatively correlated with academic burnout and mind wandering. Academic burnout was significantly and positively correlated with mind wandering.

Table 1. Descriptive Statistics and Correlations Between Variables

Table/Figure

Note. ** p < .01 (two-tailed).

Testing for Multiple Mediation

To test the mediation effect we ran a three-step regression analysis. We entered Internet addiction in the first step to produce Model 1. In the second step we entered Internet addiction and resilience simultaneously to produce Model 2. In the third step we added Internet addiction, resilience, and academic burnout to form Model 3. Results presented in Table 2 indicate that Internet addiction was significantly associated with resilience; both Internet addiction and resilience were significantly associated with academic burnout; and Internet addiction, resilience, and academic burnout were significantly associated with mind wandering.

Table 2. Three-Step Regression Analysis of the Mediating Effect

Table/Figure

Note. *** p < .001 (two-tailed).

The results of a bias-corrected percentile bootstrapping analysis revealed significant indirect effects of resilience and academic burnout on the relationship between Internet addiction and mind wandering (see Table 3 and Figure 1). Furthermore, the serial mediation effect of resilience and academic burnout between these two variables was small yet significant. Additionally, none of the empirical 95% CI values overlapped with zero, meaning that the mediation effects were significant.

Table 3. Path Analysis Results

Table/Figure

 

 

 

Discussion


We observed a significantly positive association between Internet addiction and mind wandering, which is consistent with the findings of Johannes et al. (2018) and Utami et al. (2021). Although this question still needs to be addressed in future studies, our study and prior work do appear to confirm the findings. A factor in Internet-related behaviors is poor self-control over the need to be constantly connected to social networks or the Internet. Pandemic conditions, which drive individuals to engage in Internet activities, promote this tendency (Utami et al., 2021). Internet use is a maladaptive coping mechanism for psychological unease in the middle of a pandemic, especially among teens (Fernandes et al., 2020). Internet addiction, like excessive Internet use or frequent technology use, predicts digital distraction, particularly when doing a task, and makes a person more prone to problematic Internet use (Chen et al., 2020). The amount of time needed to complete a job is also significantly and positively correlated with digital distractions. The more time students spend visiting Internet sites that are not related to their work, the longer it will take them to complete tasks (Patil et al., 2019).

This study confirmed that resilience is negatively related to mind wandering among adolescents, which is consistent with a previous study (Pang et al., 2019). These results suggest that students with high resilience experience low mind wandering. Moreover, we found that resilience plays a small yet significant partial mediating role between Internet addiction and mind wandering, supporting Hypothesis 1. Our findings suggest that the effect of students’ Internet addiction on decreasing mind wandering may be enhanced by strengthening their resilience. During the COVID-19 pandemic, students had to turn to online learning, which requires them to be connected to the Internet for much more time than before. Resilience can assist students in addressing these negatives, which can lessen Internet addiction and mind wandering. Conversely, students with higher Internet addiction and lower levels of resilience may be more likely to utilize dysfunctional strategies to cope, which causes them to experience more intense mind wandering (Canale et al., 2019). The effect of Internet addiction on decreasing mind wandering depends on the level of the resilience of adolescents, but the development of their resilience is influenced by many factors (Oyoo et al., 2018). Therefore, our study shows that adolescents with Internet addiction need resilience as a significant antecedent feature to manage mind wandering. The mediating effect of resilience provides new perspectives for reducing students’ mind wandering.

This study found a significant positive correlation between academic burnout and mind wandering, which is congruent with the findings by Vinski and Watter (2013), to the extent that students who have higher levels of academic burnout obtain higher scores for mind wandering. Moreover, we found that academic burnout plays a mediating role between Internet addiction and mind wandering, which supported Hypothesis 2. The results reveal that Internet addiction is positively related to academic burnout, which aligns with the findings of Salmela-Aro et al. (2017). The movement of students to online learning, which increased the possibility of Internet addiction, could be a cause of academic burnout (Qu et al., 2017). For students, Internet addiction leads to inadequate study time and consequently becoming unable to keep up with academic progress goals, eventually leading to academic burnout. Academic burnout affects adolescents’ attention, executive control, task completion time, information processing of task inputs, and capacity to keep attention on the task, all of which can result in mind wandering. Students who experience academic burnout feel exhausted and have a decreased sense of personal accomplishment. From an educational perspective, it would be advisable to adopt techniques to reduce Internet addiction and academic burnout, which commonly have an impact on the mind wandering of students.

Resilience to academic burnout served as a small yet significant partial sequential mediating factor in the link between Internet addiction and mind wandering. According to the biopsychosocial model, Internet addiction is a particularly challenging issue driven by social, psychological, and physiological variables (Liu & Zhang, 2004). Young people who are living in friendly, emotionally responsive environments may have the chance to learn how to cope with the difficulties brought on by unprecedented global events, like the COVID-19 pandemic, which will help them become more resilient (Cui & Chi, 2021; Sippel et al., 2015). Such resilient teenagers are more likely to see the pandemic’s unfavorable circumstances as transient, constrained, and surmountable (Nam et al., 2018). As a result, they will be better able to defend against their negative feelings about the pandemic, experience positive emotions, and lessen their academic burnout. This will reduce the risk of turning to the virtual world for solace and developing mind wandering.

Limitations and Future Research Directions

There are several limitations to this study. First, we surveyed only adolescents who self-reported their responses. To avoid bias when calculating the factor connections, it would be beneficial to incorporate data from a variety of informants, such as parents, peers, and teachers. Second, the participants’ ages ranged widely. The prevalence of Internet addiction and mind wandering traits vary among age group. Future research could use other sample groups, such as college students, to confirm the concept. Last, the cross-sectional data we obtained offer only preliminary insight into the association between the investigated factors and mind wandering. Further longitudinal investigations may help researchers better comprehend the causal relationships between the behaviors and their underlying causes.

Conclusion

Despite these limitations, this study is the first to examine the associations between Internet addiction, resilience, academic burnout, and mind wandering. The results provide further evidence of the direct effects of Internet addiction on mind wandering and indicate that such behavior could be impacted by Internet addiction through the sequential mediators of resilience and academic burnout. It would be helpful to explore the causal relationships between the variables in a further longitudinal study. In terms of interventions to reduce mind wandering among adolescents during unprecedented world events such as the recent COVID-19 pandemic, this study highlights that it may be effective to focus not on the attention behavior itself but on its underlying mechanisms, including Internet addiction, resilience, and academic burnout. Additionally, helping young people to enhance their resilience and encouraging them to use efficient coping skills in response to daily events may reduce the occurrence of academic burnout and, consequently, mind wandering.

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Seli, P., Schacter, D. L., Risko, E. F., & Smilek, D. (2019). Increasing participant motivation reduces rates of intentional and unintentional mind wandering. Psychological Research, 83(5), 1057–1069.
 
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Shin, S., & Hwang, E. (2020). The effects of clinical practice stress and resilience on nursing students’ academic burnout [In Korean]. Korean Medical Education Review, 22(2), 115–121.
 
Sin, N. L., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2009). Enhancing well-being and alleviating depressive symptoms with positive psychology interventions: A practice-friendly meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(5), 467–487.
 
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Song, X. L., Yang, M., & Wang, X. P. (2014). The effect of different physical exercise programs on college students’ mental toughness. Journal of Chengde Petroleum Institute of Higher Education, 16(5), 69–72.
 
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Szpunar, K. K., Moulton, S. T., & Schacter, D. L. (2013). Mind wandering and education: From the classroom to online learning. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, Article 495.
 
Taheri Kharameh, Z., Sharififard, F., Asayesh, H., & Sepahvandi, M. R. (2017). Academic resilience and burnout relationship of the student of Qom University of Medical Sciences. Education Strategies in Medical Sciences, 10(5), 375–383.
 
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Walker, H. E. K., & Trick, L. M. (2018). Mind wandering while driving: The impact of fatigue, task length, and sustained attention abilities. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 59(Part A), 81–97.
 
Wang, J., Bu, L., Li, Y., Song, J., & Li, N. (2021). The mediating effect of academic engagement between psychological capital and academic burnout among nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study. Nurse Education Today, 102, Article 104938.
 
Wang, M., Guan, H., Li, Y., Xing, C., & Rui, B. (2019). Academic burnout and professional self-concept of nursing students: A cross-sectional study. Nurse Education Today, 77, 27–31.
 
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Ramirez-Granizo, I. A., Sánchez-Zafra, M., Zurita-Ortega, F., Puertas-Molero, P., González-Valero, G., & Ubago-Jiménez, J. L. (2020). Multidimensional self-concept depending on levels of resilience and the motivational climate directed towards sport in schoolchildren. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(2), Article 534.
 
Randall, J. G., Oswald, F. L., & Beier, M. E. (2014). Mind wandering, cognition, and performance: A theory-driven meta-analysis of attention regulation. Psychological Bulletin, 140(6), 1411–1431.
 
Ríos‐Risquez, M. I., García‐Izquierdo, M., Sabuco-Tebar, E. D. L. Á., Carrillo-Garcia, C., & Solano-Ruiz, C. (2018). Connections between academic burnout, resilience, and psychological well‐being in nursing students: A longitudinal study. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 74(12), 2777–2784.
 
Salmela-Aro, K., Upadyaya, K., Hakkarainen, K., Lonka, K., & Alho, K. (2017). The dark side of Internet use: Two longitudinal studies of excessive Internet use, depressive symptoms, school burnout and engagement among Finnish early and late adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46(2), 343–357.
 
Sansevere, K. S., & Ward, N. (2021). Linking phubbing behavior to self-reported attentional failures and media multitasking. Future Internet, 13(4), Article 100.
 
Seli, P., Schacter, D. L., Risko, E. F., & Smilek, D. (2019). Increasing participant motivation reduces rates of intentional and unintentional mind wandering. Psychological Research, 83(5), 1057–1069.
 
Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2014). Positive psychology: An introduction. In M. Csikszentmihalyi (Ed.), Flow and the foundations of positive psychology: The collected works of Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi (pp. 279–298). Springer.
 
Shin, S., & Hwang, E. (2020). The effects of clinical practice stress and resilience on nursing students’ academic burnout [In Korean]. Korean Medical Education Review, 22(2), 115–121.
 
Sin, N. L., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2009). Enhancing well-being and alleviating depressive symptoms with positive psychology interventions: A practice-friendly meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(5), 467–487.
 
Sippel, L. M., Pietrzak, R. H., Charney, D. S., Mayes, L. C., & Southwick, S. M. (2015). How does social support enhance resilience in the trauma-exposed individual? Ecology & Society, 20(4), Article 10.
 
Song, X. L., Yang, M., & Wang, X. P. (2014). The effect of different physical exercise programs on college students’ mental toughness. Journal of Chengde Petroleum Institute of Higher Education, 16(5), 69–72.
 
Steinhardt, M., & Dolbier, C. (2008). Evaluation of a resilience intervention to enhance coping strategies and protective factors and decrease symptomatology. Journal of American College Health, 56(4), 445–453.
 
Sun, Y., Li, Y., Bao, Y., Meng, S., Sun, Y., Schumann, G., ... Shi, J. (2020). Brief report: Increased addictive Internet and substance use behavior during the COVID‐19 pandemic in China. The American Journal on Addictions, 29(4), 268–270.
 
Szpunar, K. K., Moulton, S. T., & Schacter, D. L. (2013). Mind wandering and education: From the classroom to online learning. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, Article 495.
 
Taheri Kharameh, Z., Sharififard, F., Asayesh, H., & Sepahvandi, M. R. (2017). Academic resilience and burnout relationship of the student of Qom University of Medical Sciences. Education Strategies in Medical Sciences, 10(5), 375–383.
 
Thomas, L. J., & Revell, S. H. (2016). Resilience in nursing students: An integrative review. Nurse Education Today, 36, 457–462.
 
Thornton, B., Faires, A., Robbins, M., & Rollins, E. (2014). The mere presence of a cell phone may be distracting: Implications for attention and task performance. Social Psychology, 45(6), 479–488.
 
Utami, R. H., Kurniawan, R., & Magistarina, E. (2021). Internet-related behavior and mind wandering. Jurnal RAP (Riset Aktual Psikologi Universitas Negeri Padang), 12(1), 48–56.
 
Vinski, M. T., & Watter, S. (2013). Being a grump only makes things worse: A transactional account of acute stress on mind wandering. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, Article 730.
 
Walker, H. E. K., & Trick, L. M. (2018). Mind wandering while driving: The impact of fatigue, task length, and sustained attention abilities. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 59(Part A), 81–97.
 
Wang, J., Bu, L., Li, Y., Song, J., & Li, N. (2021). The mediating effect of academic engagement between psychological capital and academic burnout among nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study. Nurse Education Today, 102, Article 104938.
 
Wang, M., Guan, H., Li, Y., Xing, C., & Rui, B. (2019). Academic burnout and professional self-concept of nursing students: A cross-sectional study. Nurse Education Today, 77, 27–31.
 
Yang, Y. Q. (2020). The relationship between learning burnout and classroom distraction among secondary school students (Published master’s thesis) [In Chinese]. Tianjin Normal University.
 
Yanko, M. R., & Spalek, T. M. (2014). Driving with the wandering mind: The effect that mind wandering has on driving performance. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 56(2), 260–269.
 
Young, K. S. (1996). Psychology of computer use: XL. Addictive use of the Internet: A case that breaks the stereotype. Psychological Reports, 79(3), 899–902.
 
Zhang, Y., Gan, Y., & Cham, H. (2007). Perfectionism, academic burnout and engagement among Chinese college students: A structural equation modeling analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 43(6), 1529–1540.
 
Zhu, K., Xie, X., Liu, Q., Meng, H., & Song, R. (2022). Internet addiction: Prevalence and relationship with academic burnout among undergraduates during widespread online learning. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care. Advance online publication.

Table/Figure

Figure 1. Research Chain Mediation Model


Table 1. Descriptive Statistics and Correlations Between Variables

Table/Figure

Note. ** p < .01 (two-tailed).


Table 2. Three-Step Regression Analysis of the Mediating Effect

Table/Figure

Note. *** p < .001 (two-tailed).


Table 3. Path Analysis Results

Table/Figure

 

 

 


This study was supported by Subject of Hunan Provincial Social Science Achievement Review Committee (XSP23YBC198) and Fundamental Research Funds of Huaihua University (HHUY2023-18).

Jianguo Qu, College of Educational Sciences, Huaihua University, No. 138, Jinhai Road, Huaihua, Hunan Province, People’s Republic of China 418000. Email: [email protected]

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