Private tutoring and academic achievement: Self-study as a mediator

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Eun Hee Seo
Cite this article:  Seo, E. (2018). Private tutoring and academic achievement: Self-study as a mediator. Social Behavior and Personality: An international journal, 46(5), 823-830.


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I examined the relationships among private tutoring in mathematics, self-study, and academic achievement, in particular, the potential mediating role of self-study in the relationship between private tutoring and academic achievement. The responses of 3,689 Korean middle school students were analyzed. Results showed that private tutoring time positively predicted self-study time and academic achievement. Number of hours of self-study also predicted academic achievement and mediated the relationship between private tutoring and academic achievement. These findings showed that private tutoring increased the time students spent on self-study rather than replacing it. In addition, the positive effect of private tutoring on academic achievement was mediated by increased self-study time. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.

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