Sports penalties: An alternative means of measuring aggression

Gordon W. Russell1, Audrey Russell1
1University of Lethbridge, Canada
Cite this article:  Russell, G. W., & Russell, A. (1984). Sports penalties: An alternative means of measuring aggression. Social Behavior and Personality: An international journal, 12(1), 69-74.

Volume 12 Issue 1 | e429 | Published: February 1984 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.1984.12.1.69

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The official records of all games played in the Western Hockey League (N = 432) during a season provided the data for a Principal Components analysis of 19 aggressive penalties. The solution suggested that inter-personal aggression in the sport is multiply determined and can arise from eight different sets of conditions or antecedents. The advantages to research designs of using penalty indices as measures of aggression were discussed within the exceptional circumstance of a subculture which is supportive of aggressive behaviors.
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