The effect of negatively worded measures of self-esteem on children

Masako Tsurumaki1, Taku Sato2, Yoshiaki Nihei2
1Fukushima University, Japan
2Tohoku University, Japan
Cite this article:  Tsurumaki, M., Sato, T., & Nihei, Y. (2009). The effect of negatively worded measures of self-esteem on children. Social Behavior and Personality: An international journal, 37(10), 1383-1384.

Volume 37 Issue 10 | e1951 | Published: November 2009 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2009.37.10.1383

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Low self-esteem in learning disabled or emotionally disturbed children has been reported as a result of their failures in various social and educational settings (e.g., Conley, Ghavami, Vonohlen, & Foulkes, 2007). To verify such a decline, a number of self-esteem scales have been used in research. These usually utilize positive and negative items. For example, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1965) has five positive descriptions and five negative descriptions.

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