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The link between marital adjustment and personality was investigated in 66 Japanese married couples using Locke and Wallace’s Short Marital Adjustment Test (SMAT; Locke & Wallace, 1959) and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ; Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975). Structural equation modeling suggests that the husband’s neuroticism score is related to the wife’s marital satisfaction as is the wife’s dyadic consensus score, although to a lesser extent, while the wife’s extraversion score is related to the husband’s marital satisfaction. Spouses’ marital satisfactions were correlated with each other. The study suggests that the personality traits of a partner can predict an individual’s marital adjustment.