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Depression influences personality measures like Eysenck's Big Three, Costa and McCrae's Big Five or Cloninger's Seven Factor models, and might also affect Zuckerman-Kuhlman's Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ), an alternative five-factor model. The authors therefore tested ZKPQ in 85 patients suffering from major depression and in 82 healthy subjects in order to clarify this effect. Depressive mood was measured USING Plutchik and van Praag's Depression Inventory (PVP). Patients scored significantly higher on PVP, Neuroticism-Anxiety and Aggression-Hostility, but lower on Activity and Sociability than did healthy volunteers. In the general sample (N = 167), Neuroticism-Anxiety and Aggression-Hostility scores were positively correlated, while the Sociability score was negatively correlated with the PVP score. These results indicate that when the clinical significance relating to personality traits in patients is interpreted, depressive mood must also be considered.