The motivational foundations and behavioral expressions of three narcissistic styles

Ted S. Sturman1
1University of Southern Maine, United States
Cite this article:  Sturman, T. S. (2000). The motivational foundations and behavioral expressions of three narcissistic styles. Social Behavior and Personality: An international journal, 28(4), 393-408.

Volume 28 Issue 4 | e1031 | Published: August 2000 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2000.28.4.393

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The motivational and behavioral underpinnings of 3 narcissistic styles were assessed. Participants completed measures of adaptive, maladaptive, and covert narcissism along with instruments assessing unconscious and conscious motives and patterns of daily behavior. Adaptive narcissism was associated with dominance and affiliation motives, maladaptive narcissism was related to high dominance and low affiliation motivation, and covert narcissism was inversely associated with both dominance and affiliation. The notion that maladaptive and covert narcissism are 2 distinct styles representing different forms of disaffiliation is discussed.

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