Development of the Attachment Affective Picture System

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Ying Liu
Xu Chen
Jing Zhai
Qingting Tang
Jia Hu
Cite this article:  Liu, Y., Chen, X., Zhai, J., Tang, Q., & Hu, J. (2016). Development of the Attachment Affective Picture System. Social Behavior and Personality: An international journal, 44(9), 1565-1574.


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We developed the Attachment Affective Picture System (AAPS) to facilitate research on attachment. To construct the AAPS, we selected 903 color photographs depicting positive and negative parent–child attachment, positive and negative romantic attachment, and neutral nonattachment. Participants (N = 78) rated the pictures’ valence, arousal, and attachment on a 9-point scale (1 = low to 9 = high). All pictures were found to have high internal consistency reliability coefficients (Cronbach’s alphas > .90; split-half reliability > .80). The scores on each dimension were consistent with the properties of the pictures and attachment themes were not significantly different in terms of dimensional properties. In conclusion, the AAPS is suitable for use in research conducted in the field of attachment theory, especially in relation to emotion.

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